• Mai Khder

Toshka project

Updated: Apr 28, 2021

Tushka is an aromatic flower, the name of a ghiba plant that used to grow in abundance in the Tushka valley, made of two syllables of the Nubian dialect (Tosh).

A new delta in the south of the Western Sahara parallel to the Nile, which will help to increase the area of up to 540 000 acres of land irrigated by the waters of the Nile through the Sheik Sayed Canal, with its water content of about 5,5 billion m3 a year, is the ToshKa Project in the Toshka Meadow region in Egypt. The project is to be held.

The area of Toshka has two towns, one to the west of the Nile and Toshka Sharq, the other west of the Nile, Toshka to the west. Dhows were used by the residents of Toshka to transport between the two Nile villages.

Toshka's villages - west and east - have been characterized by buildings that are made of locally available material and raw material of clay and Nubian sandstone. As for roofs, palm tree sheets were also made on the palm trees and worked to cool the air temperature.

In the newly reclaimed land next to Kom Ombo in the center of Aswan, the people of the two villages were displaced and owned by the same name and their villages were called by the same name (Toshka). It starts from the lift station from Lake Nasser and then the main channel for the project. The project and its base structure are in the north of Khor Toshka.


The aim of this paper is to provide an initial evaluation of Egypt's attempt to re-populate the Nile Valley with people from the Western Desert. The National Project for the Development of Upper Egypt, also known as the Toshka Project, is officially known as the National Project for the Development of Upper Egypt (NPDUE). The resettlement plan is largely reliant on the availability of a consistent supply of freshwater. This water will be taken from Lake Nassar, which is located behind the Aswan High Dam, and pumped into the desert through a series of canals, allowing for irrigated agriculture. We were able to gain a basic understanding of the project and a preliminary evaluation of its progress through an exhaustive analysis of government records and interviews with both government officials and Egyptian residents (who might be asked to relocate to the desert). Despite the lack of publicly available knowledge about the initiative, this was achieved. We looked at six main factors to determine the project's chances of success: economics, donor investment, demographics, water supply, technological, and environmental. In the end, it appears that the Toshka project's progress is highly dependent on the availability of private capital. This money is projected to come from other Arab countries, with Saudi Prince Al Walid being the biggest investor in Toshka so far. The Egyptian government claims that public investment in the project will be no more than 20 to 25% of the total, and sticking to that promise will be critical; higher levels of public investment are likely to raise inflationary pressures in the region. The paper concludes by evaluating whether the project's possible negative consequences—whether economic, demographic, or environmental—are likely to outweigh the anticipated benefits of relocating seven million people out of the heavily populated Nile Valley.

Geographical characteristics

This desert covers a group of depressions that are roughly along the river Nile and are 50-200 kilometers far, while the depression in the South Valley extends naturally into the Kharga depression and extends to the south to the valley and depression of Toshka, south of Aswan, around 250 kilometers, with the depression to the south of the valley. The Darb Al-Arbaeen, connecting Sudan to Egypt via the Kharga oasis, has 8 million feddans to the west.

In addition to the development and investment resources and potential in these promising areas, the South has a strategic importance that needs to be addressed, and this issue concerns the future of national security in Egypt, especially as the South of the valley includes natural resources in the soil that should not be neglected. Also in large regions in the south and west of the Republic, the project is located. Increased population and development activities, services, and communication with its neighbors, the main ones of which are Sudan and Libya, provide support for strategic development goals in Arab Egypt.

South Valley studies, particularly New Valley, started in the '50s when the General Authority for Desert Reconstruction was set up to reclaim semi-isolated Egyptian deserts due to a prohibition of their entry and departure without special permission. It was natural for the studies of the Deserts Reconstruction Authority to begin by carrying out a topographical survey, geological, hydrological, and geophysical research, and soil classification.

Objectives of the project

1-Coping with the food gap in the future by increasing farmland by around 540 thousand feddans, up to one million feddans.

2-Maximize the return on resources available.

3-Increased exports from agriculture that helps to reduce trade deficits.

4-To give many young people job opportunities, in particular in Upper Egypt.

5-To encourage and alleviate the human pressure on the Delta and the Valle del di Nile to rebuild these areas in their housing and development.

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