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  • Writer's pictureMai Khder

The New Kingdom of Ancient Egypt | Egypt History and Kings.

During the era of the modern state, Egypt became a great empire that extended across the ancient Near East, and its southern borders reached in Nubia, and north to the Levant, and the Egyptian economy flourished to an amazing degree, and most of the most famous and impressive ancient Egyptian monuments date back to this great period.

The 18th Dynasty (1550-1295 BC) began with King Ahmose who expelled the Hyksos, a Semitic people who ruled most of the lands of Egypt during the second transition era. Is considered the most famous ancient family because it includes the famous kings of the Pharaohs in Egypt, such as "Tutankhamun, Hatshepsut, Akhenaten, and Ahmose. Most of the kings of the modern state pursued an expansionist foreign policy in response to what happened before, and the wealth received from the expansions was used in the implementation of many construction projects everywhere in the land of Egypt, especially in the Karnak Temple in Luxor, which is the most important Temple of Amun, Lord of Thebes. Most of the kings of this family were buried in the famous Valley of the Kings.

Art, architecture and the national economy reached new heights during the reign of Hatshepsut. Her husband, Thutmose II, unfortunately did not rule for a long time, while his son from another wife, Thutmose III, was still too young to rule. So the great royal wife, Hatshepsut, perhaps in order to secure the throne of Egypt, declared herself king of the country alongside her husband's boy son. Hatshepsut developed a new concept of kingship and linked herself to the divine birth of the descendants of Lord Amun to legitimize her reign, and left a deep imprint on the geographical, religious and political arena in Thebes.

As for Thutmose III, he proved to be the most capable king. During his rule, the borders of Egypt reached the farthest extent, and its effects extended along the Nile Valley, including Nubia, and he left many monuments in the Temple of Karnak, as Hatshepsut did before. Peace was achieved in the region during the reign of his son Amenhotep II, as both the state of peace and the increase in international trade paid off during the reign of his successor Amenhotep III. Few monarchs matched him in terms of the quality of his building projects

Its size and quantity, as he built many facilities throughout Egypt and Nubia, including half of the Luxor Temple as it is today.

However, Amenhotep the Fourth, son of Amenhotep the Third, changed his name to Akhenaten and declared his rebellion against the rest of the gods, and that there is only one god, Aton, who was represented in the form of the sun disk in the sky. His reign saw other revolutionary changes in royal ideology, art, architecture, and language. However, he neglected the foreign affairs of Egypt, and by the end of his rule, Egypt's lands were lost in the Levant (the area of ​​Palestine, Lebanon and Syria).

A turbulent period followed his era, with the ascension of Horemheb - who was a former commander of the army - to the throne and completed the return to normalcy, and the commander appointed Baramsoo as his successor. With his ascension to the throne under the name of Ramses the First, the 19th Dynasty began (about 1295-1186 BC), and his son Seti I succeeded him and entered Egypt in the era of prosperity. He also carried out many military campaigns, the most important of which were those against the Hittites, who appeared as a new force that emerged In the ancient Near East, and recovered much of the lost Egyptian lands in the Levant.

As for his son Ramses II the Great, he was one of the most successful kings of ancient Egyptian history. Over the course of his long reign, he launched many successful wars and achieved the first peace treaty with the Hittites, leaving more monuments in all parts of Egypt than any other king. Whereas, his successor and his son Merenptah launched a major attack against tribes called "the Sea Peoples", and with the end of his reign, the Nineteenth Dynasty descended.

With the rule of King Seth Nakht, founder of the 20th Dynasty (1896-1069 BC), the regime returned to the country and his son Ramses III was the last great warrior in the modern state, and after him the state deteriorated continuously until it was divided into two parts. The next family ruled only Lower Egypt, while Upper Egypt remained under Priests' judgment.

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